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Author Guide

Bioscience and Bioengineering Communications

Author Guidelines (To download: Author Guide)

Manuscripts not conforming to the following specifications will be returned.
Bioscience and Bioengineering Communications publishes original, peer-reviewed articles and review papers within scope of the journal. Original research articles should be innovative and core scientific knowledge. Review articles are comprehensive, scientifically accurate summaries of topics dealing with areas of current relevance and emerging scientific concepts. Review papers are taken by invitation or approved submission after query by author (s). By invitation: Editorial staff will invite qualified person(s) to write a review article on a selected topic. By author query: Before a review article can be submitted for peer review and possible publication, a proposal and outline of the article must be submitted to, and approved by, the editor. The proposal should include: 1) a detailed outline of the content of the proposed review; 2) a general idea of the amount of original literature to be summarized; and 3) the background of the author(s) supporting his/her expertise in the area to be discussed in the review. It is anticipated that the author(s) will have worked and published in the area of the review. The author should also state why he/she feels this particular review is suited for journal and why the review article would appeal to the readership.

Manuscript submission:
Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format via e-mail only, and should be presented in accordance with the guidelines for authors. All manuscripts should be accompanied by a covering letter.
Manuscripts should be sent to: editor@bioscibioeng.com
Submission of a manuscript will be held to imply that the work reported in it is original, that the results have not been previously published (either in part or whole) and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and further, that if accepted, will not be published elsewhere. Manuscripts that are not written in clear and understandable English are liable to be returned for re-writing even if they may be publishable on the basis of their scientific content.
Authors are invited to suggest names and addresses of four experts who in their opinion can review the paper. The choice of referees will however remain with the editorial board.

Manuscript structure
Manuscript should be prepared with MS word 2007 or newer version. Line and page numbers should be inserted starting from the beginning.

Title page→Second page should be started from: type of article → title of article → abstract → keywords (3-6) → introduction → materials and methods → results→discussion → conclusions → acknowledgement → references → figures →Tables

Style and format
Manuscripts should be written in simple declarative sentences and must conform to accepted standards of English style and usage. Authors whose first language is not English are requested to have their manuscripts checked carefully for linguistic correctness before submission. Submit manuscript with elements arranged in the following order, numbering all pages consecutively. Double-space all material. Font: Times New Roman, size 12.

Title Page
The title of the article must be brief and contain words useful for indexing. The names of authors with initials and the address of the institution where the work was carried out must be given. An abbreviated running title of not more than 50 letters (including spaces) must also be given. The name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of author to whom all correspondence should be given.

Abstract
Articles must have an abstract of not more than 250 words summarizing the significant results reported. It should not contain references.

Keywords
Three to six keywords must be provided.

Text
The paper must be divided into sections, starting with ‘Introduction’ and ending with ‘Conclusion’. The main sections should be numbered 1, 2 etc., the sub-sections 1.1, 1.2, etc., and further subsections (if necessary) 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc. All measurements should be given in SI units. Avoid numbers at the beginning of a sentence, but if you have to use them, spell them. Taxonomic affiliation such as Phylum, Order and Family as well as the common name of the main study organism should be given in the title or at the first mention unless such information is likely to be obvious to the broad range of biologists. Scientific names of genera and species should be in italics. Accepted common names of plants and animals (and other organisms) and of plant and animal or other diseases should neither be capitalized nor placed within quotation marks. Words and phrases not of English origin and not in common use (e.g. in vitro, in situ) should be in italics.

Introduction:
Introduction should state the purpose of the investigation with imperative references to relevant previous works (<10,000 characters).

Materials and Methods:
The description of the methods should be as short as possible but adequate for repetition of the work by a qualified investigator. The metric system is standard, and SI units must be used as much as possible. Use the negative index system instead, i.e. mmol m-2 s-1. Statistical methods should be identified.

Results:
The “Results” are usually presented in figures and tables; some results that do not need documentation can be given in the text. Figures and Tables: Provide each figure (JPG) and table with a short, concise title followed by a legend that will make the general meaning of the figure or table comprehensible without reference to the text. Number figures and tables in order of citation in text with Arabic numerals (1,2,3…).

Discussion
The “Discussion” should deal with interpretation and not with recapitulation of the results. Use of a simple and pictorial scheme to illustrate the major results is encouraged. Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments of assistance and financial support should be stated briefly at the end of the “Discussion” section.

Tables
All tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals in the order of appearance in the text. Tables should be self-contained and have a descriptive title. Details of experiments (not mentioned in the text) may be indicated in brief below the table as a legend.

Figures and Graphs
Please make the illustrations using an acceptable formats: TIFF or JPEG (resolution independent files).

Conclusions
This section should be completed with a major conclusion that answers the question specified in the introductory part of the article. 

Acknowledgments
The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. (It will be assumed that the absence of such an acknowledgment is a statement by the authors that no support was received.)

References
References should be cited in the text by author and year, not by number. If there are more than two authors, reference should be made to the first author followed by et al in the TEXT. References at the end of the paper should be listed alphabetically by authors’ names, followed by initials, year of publication, full title of the paper, name of the journal (abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals, Butterworths, London), volume number, initial and final page numbers. References to books should include: name(s) of author(s), initials, year of publication, title of the book, edition if not the first, initials and name(s) of editor(s) if any, preceded by ed(s), place of publication, publisher, and pages referred to. References to theses must include the year, the title of the thesis, the degree for which submitted and the university. If there are more than eight authors, then after eighth author 'et al.' could be used (in the list of REFERENCES).

Examples:
Mani A and Prabhu VKK (1986) Significance of critical development stage on starvation induced endocrine mediated precocious metamorphosis in Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Proc Indian Acad Sci  95: 379–385.

Zar JH (1974) Biostatistical analysis (New Jersey: Prentice Hall) Samiwala E B 1987 DNA cloning in Haemophilus influenzae, Ph.D. thesis, University of Bombay, Bombay

Ramanna M S and Hermsen J H Th 1979 Genome relationships in tuber-bearing Solanums; in Biology and taxonomy of Solanaceae (eds) J G Hawkes, R N Lester and A G Skelding (London: Academic Press) pp 647–654

Abbreviations, Symbols, Units etc
The authors should follow internationally agreed rules especially those adopted by the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (CBN). The journal will essentially follow the rules defined in the IUPAC Manua1 of symbols and terminology for physico-chemical quantities and units (Butterworths, London), 1970. Enzyme names may be abbreviated except on the first occasion, when the full name and abbreviation in parenthesis should be given.

Footnotes
Footnotes to the text should be avoided if possible but when essential should be numbered consecutively and typed on a separate sheet.

Peer review process
Manuscripts are reviewed by two independent experts in the particular area and are sent blank to avoid any biased evaluation.

Proofs
Submitted manuscripts must be considered as final texts to which no changes should be made at the proof stage apart from correction to printer's errors. The managing editor will send the page proofs to the author by e-mail as PDF file. Proofs must be returned to the publishers by e-mail within 48 hours of receipt.

Manuscript submission/processing/publication fee
The journal publishes original research articles and review paper with free of cost.

The average time from submission to publication is four weeks.

Copyright
Upon submitting an article, authors should be agreed to abide by an open access Creative Commons license. Under the terms of this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright of their articles. However, the license permits any user to download, print out, extract, reuse, archive, and distribute the article, so long as appropriate credit is given to the authors and the source of the work. The re-use should be only for non-commercial purposes. The license ensures that the article will be available as widely as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific archive.

Ethics of animal experimentation 
Experiments with animals should be done in accordance with the legal requirements of the relevant local or national authority. Manuscripts describing any experimental work with laboratory animal or bird should include a statement that the Ethical Committee of the institution in which the work was done has approved it. Papers should include details of the procedures and of anesthetics used.



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